About the Editors

Rudolph's Pediatrics
22nd Edition

by: Colin D. Rudolph
Abraham M. Rudolph
George E Lister
Lewis First
Anne A. Gershon


Table of Contents

Section Editor: Thomas G. DeWitt
1. Role of the Pediatrician, Thomas G. DeWitt and Neal Halfon
2. Decision-Making: Use of Evidence-Based Medicine, Suresh Nagappan and Kenneth B. Roberts
3. Communication, Elizabeth A. Rider
4. Interviewing Techniques, Christopher F. Bolling
5. Systems of Practice and Office Management, Peter Margolis
6. Core Competencies, Theodore C. Sectish
7. Patient and Family-Centered Care, Jeffrey M. Simmons, Stephen E. Muething, and Kathleen L. Dressman
8. Disaster Preparedness, Janet M. Berreman and Linda Rudolph
9. Law, Ethics, and Clinical Judgment, Angela Roddey Holder
Section Editor: Eve R. Colson

Part 1: Health Maintenance Issues

10. Well-Child Care, Judith S. Shaw and Judith S. Palfrey
11. Child Development, Ilgi Ozturk Ertem and Carol Cohen Weitzman
12. Screening, Ada M. Fenick
13. Oral Heatlh Supervision, Ada M. Fenick and Linda P. Nelson
14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), Anju Sawni
15. Culture and Pediatric Practice, Sakena Abedin
16. Gay and Lesbian Parents, Cindy M. Schorzman and Melanie A. Gold
17. Environmental Pediatrics, Ruth A. Etzel
18. Travel Medicine, Joseph A. Zenel and Chandy C. John
Part 2: Managing Family Transition
19. Family Function and Birth of a Child, William I. Cohen
20. Foster Care and Adoption, Brad D. Berman and Carol Cohen Weitzman
21. Family Discord and Divorce, Michael Jellinek
22. Supporting the Grieving Child and Family, David J. Schonfeld
Section Editor: Praveen S. Goday
23. Normal Nutritional Requirements, Praveen S. Goday
24. Breast-Feeding, Jane Morton and Ruth A. Lawrence
25. Infant Formula and Complementary Foods, Margaret Kirby
26. Postdischarge Nutritional Management of the Premature Infant, Utpala G. Das
27. Nutritional Issues: Toddler to Adolescent, Margaret Kirby and Praveen S. Goday
28. Assessment of Nutritional Adequacy, Praveen S. Goday
29. Malnutrition and Refeeding, Praveen S. Goday
30. Poor Weight Gain, Karen A. Francolla and Praveen S. Goday
31. Approach to the Infant and Child with Feeding Difficulty, Richard J. Noel
32. The Overweight or Obese Child, Michelle Smith-Beckley and Brian M. Fidlin
33. Specialized Nutrition Support, Praveen S. Goday
34. Nutritional Access Devices, Lillian Sablan and Karen Sherry
Section Editor: John M. Leventhal
35. Child Maltreatment: Neglect to Abuse, John M. Leventhal and Andrea G. Asnes
36. Family and Community Violence, Renée Boynton-Jarrett and Robert Sege
37. Child Abuse Prevention: What Pediatricians Can Do, Wendy Gwirtzman and Howard Dubowitz
Section Editors: Alan H. Jobe and James M. Greenberg

Part 1: Care of the Newborn

38. Historical Perspectives, James G. Greenberg
39. Care of the Fetus, Alan H. Jobe
40. Fetal Disorders, Timothy M. Crombleholme and Foong-Yen Lim
41. Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity, Avroy A. Fanaroff
42. Delivery Room Resuscitation, Myra H. Wyckoff
43. Transitional Changes in the Newborn, David P. Carlton
44. Examination of the Newborn Infant, Joseph A. Zeneel
45. Postnatal Care and Observation, Anthony E. Burgos

Part 2: Infants at Risk

46. Multiple Births, James M. Greenberg
47. The Small-for-Gestational Age Infant, William W. Hay, Jr.
48. Infant of a Diabetic Mother, Heather Morein French and Rebecca A. Simmons

Part 3: Specific Neonatal Conditions

49. Approach to the Cyanotic Infant, Robin H. Steinhorn
50. Abnormalities of the Lungs, M. Grisel Galarza and Ilene R.S. Sosenko
51. Metabolic Abnormalities, William W. Hay, Jr.
52. Brain Abnormalities and Injuries, Seetha Shankaran and C. Michael Cotton
53. Hematologic Abnormalities and Jaundice, Henry C. Lee and Ashima Madan

Part 4: Disorders Specifically Related to Preterm Birth

54. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Thomas N. Hansen and Samuel Hawgood
55. Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Ductus Venosus, Ronald I. Clyman
56. Hemodynamics, Nick Evans
57. Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Barbara Warner
58. Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Henrietta S. Bada
59. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Alan H. Jobe
60. Emergencies, James M. Greenberg
61. Special Intensive Care, Thomas A. Parker
62. Outcomes of Preterm and Term Infants, Marilee C. Allen
Section Editors: Charles E. Irwin, Jr., Mary-Ann Shafer, and Anna-Barbara Moscicki

Part 1: Growth and Development

63. Somatic Growth and Development, Charles E. Irwin, Jr.
64. Reproductive Growth and Development in the Female Adolescent, Melissa Slivka, Anna-Barbara Moscicki, and Mary-Ann Shafer
65. Reproductive Growth and Development in the Male Adolescent, David J. Breland and Mark L. Rubinstein
66. Psychological Development, Elizabeth M. Ozer and Charles E. Irwin, Jr.
67. The Adolescent Visit, Charles E. Irwin, Jr.

Part 2: Health Problems of Adolescents

68. Mortality, Elizabeth M. Ozer
69. Morbidity, Charles E. Irwin, Jr.
70. Sexual Behavior, Erica B. Monasterio
71. Substance Use and Abuse, Stephanie N. Crewe and Arik V. Marcell

Part 3: Mental Health Disorders in the Adolescent

72. Depression, Anxiety, and Other Disorders, Kim Peter Norman
73. Disorders of Eating, Kim Peter Norman, Sara M. Buckelew, and Andrea K. Garber

Part 4: Reproductive Health Problems

74. Breast Masses, Jennifer C. Edman and Mary-Ann Shafer
75. Scrotal Masses, David J. Breland and Mark L. Rubinstein
76. Menstrual Problems, Jennifer C. Edman and Mary-Ann Shafer
77. Intrauterine and Ectopic Pregnancy, Erica B. Monasterio and Mary-Ann Shafer
78. Contraception, Erica B. Monasterio and Mary-Ann Shafer
Section Editor: Martin T. Stein

Part 1: General Concepts

79. Introduction to Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Martin T. Stein
80. Fundamental Concepts of Child Development, W. Thomas Boyce and Jack P. Shonkoff
81. Brain Development and Behavior, Charles A. Nelson III
82. Standardized Developmental Screening and Assessment Instruments, Martin T. Stein

Part 2: Developmental Variation to Disorder

83. Crying in Infants, Ronald G. Barr and Takeo Fujiwara
84. Hyperactivity and Inattention, Martin T. Stein and Michael I. Reiff
85. Learning Problems, Michael I. Reiff and Martin T. Stein
86. Language Delay, James S. Andrews and Heidi M. Feldman
87. Difficult Behavior, Martin T. Stein
88. Anxiety, Denise A. Chavira
89. Repetitive Behaviors, Adrian D. Sandler
90. Gender Identity and Sexual Behavior, Kenneth J. Zucker
91. Developmental Delay, Nathan J. Blum

Part 3: Major Psychopathologic Disorders

92. Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Michael I. Reiff
93. Affective Disorders and Suicide, Laura Prager, Steven C. Schlozman, and Michael Jellinek
94. Pediatric Condition Falsification, Herbert Schreier
95. Childhood Schizophrenia, Fred R. Volkmar

Part 4: Psychosocial Context of Development and Behavior

96. Families in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Families, Laurie J. Baumann and Ruth E. K. Stein
97. Nonparental Childcare, Nerissa S. Bauer
98. Vulnerable Child Syndrome, Yi Hui Liu
99. Adaptation to Illness, David J. Schonfeld
100. Poverty, Homelessness, and Social Disorganization, Barry S. Zuckerman and Megan Sandel
101. Resiliency in Children and Adolescents, Saul Levine
Section Editors: Julio Pérez Fontán and George Lister

Part 1: Assessment of the Acutely Ill Infant and Child

102. Respiratory Distress and Failure, Julio Pérez Fontán
103. Decreased Perfusion and Circulatory Shock, George E. Lister
104. Acute Neurological Dysfunction, Susan T. Arnold
105. The Febrile Child, M. Douglas Baker and Jeffrey R. Avner

Part 2: Stabilization and Management of the Acutely Ill Infant and Child

106. Monitoring of Vital Function, George E. Lister
107. Vascular Access, Andreas A. Theodorou and Robert A. Berg
108. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Mary Fran Hazinski
109. Life Support Systems, Julio Pérez Fontán
110. Stabilization and Transport, Deborah Lerner, George Lister, and Julio Pérez Fontán
111. Management of Cerebral Edema and Elevated Intracranial Pressure, Steven G. Kernie
112. Perioperative Care, Desmond B. Henry
113. Pain Management and Sedation, Alan Farrow-Gillespie
114. Acute Metabolic Dysfunction, Ralph J. DeBerardinis
Part 3: Injuries and Untoward Events

115. Acute Inflammation, Clifford W. Bogue
116. Trauma, Burns, and Bites, Robert P. Foglia
117. Submersion Injury, Pamela J. Okada and M. Douglas Baker
118. Foreign-Body Aspiration, Margaret A. Kenna
119. Apparent Life-Threatening Events and SIDS, Michael J. Corwin
120. Toxic Ingestions and Exposures, Sing-Yi Feng, Collin S. Goto, and M. Douglas Baker
121. Heat Stress, Michael Apkon
122. Poisonous Bites and Stings, Dee Hodge III and Carl R. Baum
Section Editors: Julio Pérez Fontán and George E. Lister

Part 1: The Changing Outlook of Chronic Illness in Childhood

123. Psychological and Behavioral Responses in Children and Their Families, Patricia J. Hicks
124. The Technology-Dependent Child, John B. Gordon, Sarah P. Brown, Jerie Beth Karkos, and Lynn A. D'Andrea

Part 2: Death and Dying in Childhood

125. Caring for Children Dying From Chronic Disease, Arthur R. Ablin
126. Hospice and Palliative Care, Julie Hauer, Barbara L. Jones, and Joanne Wolfe
127. Law, Ethics, and Caring Near the End of Life, Angela Roddey Holder
Section Editor: Patrick J. Healey
128. Pediatric Transplantation, Patrick J. Healey
129. Kidney Transplantation, Jodi M. Smith and Ruth A. McDonald
130. Liver Transplantation, Patrick J. Healey
131. Intestinal and Multivisceral Transplant, Simon Horslen
132. Heart Transplant, Beth D. Kaufman
133. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Ann E. Woolfrey, Paul A. Carpenter, and Jean E. Sanders
Section Editor: Jean-Marie Saudubray

Part 1: Inborn Errors of Metabolism

134. Principles of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Jean-Marie Saudubray and Joe T.R. Clarke

Part 2: Disorders of Amino Acid (AA) and Organic Acid (OA) Metabolism

135. Hyperphenylalaninemias, Bernd Christian Schwahn
136. Disorders of the Tyrosine Metabolism, Bernd Christian Schwahn
137. Disorders of the Branched Chain Amino and Organic Acid Metabolism, Stephen I. Goodman and Jean-Marie Saudubray
138. Disorders of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Meteabolism, Bernd Christian Schwahn
139. Disorders of Glycine, Serine, and Proline Metabolism, Bernd Christian Schwahn
140. Disorders of Metabolism of Lysine, Hydrozylysine, and Related Compounds, Stephen I. Goodman
141. Disorders of Metabolism of Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, Jaak Jaeken
142. Disorders of Creatine and Ornithine Metabolism, Sylvia Stockler-Ipsiroglu
143. Disorders of Amino Acid Transport Across Cell Membranes, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen and Ollie Simell
144. Other Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism, Jean-Marie Saudubray
145. Urea Cycle and Related Disorders, Mendel Tuchman, Uta Lichter-Konecki, and Mark L. Batshaw

Part 3: Inborn Errors of Water Soluble Vitamins

146. Introduction, Stephen I. Goodman
147. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid, David Watkins and David S. Rosenblatt
148. Biotin Responsive Disorders, Stephen I. Goodman
149. Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B1 Responsive Disorders, Jean-Marie Saudubray

Part 4: Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation, Ketogenesis, and Ketolysis

150. Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation, Stephen I. Goodman
151. Disorders of Ketogenesis, Stephen I. Goodman
152. Disorders of Ketolysis, Stephen I. Goodman
153. Disorders of Leukotriene Synthesis and Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Stephen I. Goodman

Part 5: Carbohydrate Metabolism

154. Disorders of Glycogen Metabolism, Priya S. Kishnani and Yuan-Tsong Chen
155. Disorders of Galactose and Fructose Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis, Priya S. Kishnani and Yuan-Tsong Chen
156. Disorders of Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Priya S. Kishnani and Yuan-Tsong Chen
157. Disorders of Glucose Transporters, René Santer

Part 6: Disorders of Oxidative Phosphorylation and Pyruvate Oxidation

158. Respiratory Chain Disorders, Salvatore DiMauro
159. Disorders of Energy Metabolism, Juan M. Pascual and Salvatore DiMauro

Part 7: Organelle Related Disorders

160. Mucopolysaccharidosis, Glycoproteinosis, and Mucolipidosis, James Edmond Wraith
161. Sphingolipidoses, Joe T.R. Clarke
162. Peroxisomal Disorders, David Valle, Gerald V. Raymond, and Stephen J. Gould
163. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Jaak Jaeken

Part 8: Disorders of Lipid and Bile Acid Metabolism

164. Disorders of Cholesterol Synthesis, Peter T. Clayton
165. Disorders of Bile Acid Synthesis, Peter T. Clayton
166. Disorders of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism, Peter O. Kwiterovich, Jr.

Part 9: Disorders of Nucleic Acids, Heme Metabolism, and Metals Transport

167. Disorders of Heme Biosynthesis: The Porphyrias, Robert J. Desnick
168. Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism, Georges van den Berghe
169. Disorders of Metal Metabolism, Jean-Marie Saudubray
Section Editors: John C. Carey and Michael J. Bamshad

Part 1: The Genetic Approach to Disorders of Children

170. Key Principles in Human Genetics, Michael J. Bamshad and Lynn B. Jorde
171. Multifactorial Inheritance, Lynn B. Jorde
172. Principles of Care, Claire O. Leonard

Part 2: Chromosomal Disorders

173. Human Cytogenetics, Sarah T. South and John C. Carey
174. Chromosome Disorders, John C. Carey

Part 3: Birth Defects, Malformations, and Syndromes

175. Birth Defects, Malformations, and Syndromes, John C. Carey and Michael J. Bamshad
176. Syndromes of Multiple Congenital Anomalies/Dysplasias, John C. Carey
177. Craniofacial Disorders, Carrie Lyn Heike and Michael L. Cunningham
178. Approach to the Child with Birth Defects, John C. Carey and Michael J. Bamshad
179. Genetics Skeletal Disorders, John C. Carey and Michael J. Bamshad
180. Congenital Contractures, Michael J. Bamshad and John C. Carey
181. Connective Tissue Dysplasias, Alan Rope
182. Neurocutaneous Disorders, David H. Viskochil
183. Environmental Causes of Birth Defects, Elizabeth Balken, Marsha Leen-Mitchell, Lynn P. Martinez, and Julia A. Robertson
184. Disorders of Accelerated Aging, John C. Carey
185. Genetic Evaluation of Developmental Delay/Mental Retardation, Agatino Battaglia and John C. Carey
Section Editor: Talal A. Chatila
186. Overview of the Immune System, Eli M. Eisenstein, Kathleen E. Sullivan, and Calvin B. Williams
187. Undue Susceptibility to Infection, Talal A. Chatila
188. Primary Immunodeficiencies, Talal A. Chatila
189. Complement Disorders, Patricia C. Giclas and Ashley A. Frazer-Abel
190. Allergic Disease and Atopy, Talal A. Chatila
191. Clinical Aspects of Allergic Diseases, Maria Garcia-Lloret
192. Allergic Rhinitis and Conjunctivitis, Maria Garcia-Lloret
193. Anaphylaxis, Urticaria, and Angioedema, Marc A. Riedel
194. Food Allergy, Maria Garcia-Lloret
195. Insect Allergy, Maria Garcia-Lloret
196. Latex Allergy, Marc A. Riedel
197. Adverse Reactions to Drugs, Marc A. Riedel
Section Editor: Robert P. Sundel

Part 1: General Principles in Rheumatology

198. Pathogenesis of Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders, Kathleen E. Sullivan
199. History and Physical Exam, Robert P. Sundel
200. Diagnostic Testing in Rheumatology, Peter A. Nigrovic

Part 2: Specific Rheumatologic Disorders

201. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Carol A. Wallace, David A. Cabral, and Robert P. Sundel
202. Spondyloarthropathies, David A. Cabral and Lori B. Tucker
203. Vasculitides, Karyl S. Barron
204. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Overlap Connective Tissue Diseases, and Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Earl D. Silverman
205. Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Lisa G. Rider
206. Scleroderma, Francesco Zulian

Part 3: Systemic Syndromes in Rheumatology

207. Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes, Yukiko Kimura
208. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, David S. Leslie
209. Autoinflammatory Disorders, Peter J. Hashkes
Section Editor: John A. Herring
210. Growth and Development, John G. Birch
211. The Limping Child, Lawson A.B. Copley
212. Torsional and Angular Deformities, Karl E. Rathjen
213. Disorders of the Foot, Charles E. Johnston
214. Disorders of the Knee, John A. Herring
215. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip, David A. Podeszwa
216. Disorders of the Neck and Spine, Daniel J. Sucato
217. Disorders of the Upper Extremity, Marybeth Ezaki
218. Injuries, Philip Wilson
219. Tumors, B. Stephens Richards
220. Neuromuscular Disorders, Lori A. Karol
221. Common Orthopedia Misses, John A. Herring
Section Editors: Anne A. Gershon and Peter J. Hotez
Part 1: Principles of Infectious Disease
222. Bacterial Pathogenesis, Janet R. Gilsdorf and Carl F. Marrs
223. Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock, Stephanie H. Stovall and Richard F. Jacobs
224. Viral Pathogenesis, Anne Moscona and Anne A. Gershon
225. Infection Control, Margaret C. Fisher
226. Diagnostic Approaches for Infectious Diseases, John C. Christenson and E. Kent Korgenski
227. Acute Fever without a Focus, Steven Black
228. Fever of Unknown Origin, Russell W. Steele
229. Fever and Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient, David B. Haslam and Jeffrey Scott McKinney
230. Therapy for Perinatal and Neonatal Infections, David W. Kimberlin, Debra L. Palazzi, and Richard J. Whitley

Part 2: Infections of Organ Systems

231. Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System, Thomas S. Murray and Robert S. Baltimore
232. Viral Infections of the Central Nervous System, John F. Modlin
233. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Loris Y. Hwang, Anna-Barbara Moscicki, and Mary-Ann Shafer
234. Bone, Joint, and Soft Tissue Infections, Robin B. Churchill and Blanca E. Gonzalez
235. Cardiac Infections, Janet A. Stockheim and Stanford T. Shulman
236. Gastrointestinal Infections, Matthew B. Laurens and Michael S. Donnenberg
237. Infections of the Liver, M. Kyle Jensen and Grzegorz Telega
238. Urinary Tract Infections, Keith M. Krasinski
239. Catheter-Associated Infections, Marc Foca

Part 3: Infections of the Respiratory System

240. Community-Acquired and Bacterial Pneumonia in Children, Stephen I. Pelton
241. Viral Respiratory Infections Including Influenza, J. Robert Honegger and Michael T. Brady
242. Fungal Respiratory Infections, Hana Hakim and Aditya H. Gaur
243. Infections of the Ear, Jerome O. Klein

Part 4: Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Diseases

244. Immunizations, Kristina A. Bryant
245. Antiviral Therapy,David K. Hong and Charles G. Prober
246. Antibacterial Therapy, David K. Hong and Charles G. Prober
247. Antifungal Therapy, Patricia M. Flynn

Part 5: Bacterial Infections

248. Actinomycosis, Nahed Abdel-Haq and Ashir Kumar
249. Anaerobic Infections, Ayesha Mirza and Mobeen H. Rathore
250. Clostridial Infections, Jose Zayas and Mobeen H. Rathore
251. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), Denis Bratcher
252. Arcanobacterium, Dennis L. Murray
253. Bacillus cereus
254. Brucellosis, Ziad M. Shehab
255. Burkholderia and Pseudomonas, Jane L. Burns
256. campylobacter Infections, Guillermo M. Ruiz-Palacios
257. Cat Scratch Disease, Moshe Ephros and Michael Giladi
258. Chancroid (Hemophilus ducreyi), Mary Allen Staat
259. Chlamydia, Navjyot K. Vidwan and Mary Allen Staat
260. Cholera, Chokechai Rongkavilit and Ashir Kumar
261. Diphtheria, Gary D. Overturf
262. Enterococci, Dwight A. Powell
263. Haemophilus influenzae, Mark R. Schleiss and Arnold L. Smith
264. Legionella Pneumonia, Lorry G. Rubin
265. Leptospirosis, Anne A. Gershon and Michael Katz
266. Listeriosis, Ziad M. Shehab
267. Lyme Disease, Michael A. Gerber
268. Moraxella catarrhalis, Basim I. Asmar
269. Tuberculosis (Mycobacteria tuberculosis), Jeffrey R. Starke
270. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Jeffrey R. Starke
271. Leprosy, Wayne M. Meyers, Françoise Portaels, and Douglas S. Walsh
272. Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection), Wayne M. Meyers, Françoise Portaels, and Douglas S. Walsh
273. Mycoplasma Infections, Julia A. McMillan
274. Meisseria gonorrhoeae, Mary Allen Staat
275. Neisseria Meningitidis, Michele Estabrook
276. Nocardiosis, Mahed Abdel-Haq and Ashir Kumar
277. Pasteurella multocida, Morven S. Edwards
278. Pertussis, Beverly L. Connelly
279. Plague, Gary D. Overturf
280. Pneumococcal Infections, Sandra R. Arnold and P. Joan Chesney
281. Rat-Bite Fever, Lorry G. Rubin
282. Relapsing Fever, Dennis L. Murray
283. Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli, Andrew T. Pavia
284. Staphylococcus Infections, Beverly L. Connelly
285. Streptococcal Group A Infections, Mark R. Schleiss and Edward L. Kaplan
286. Group B Streptococcal Infections, Morven S. Edwards
287. Nongroup A or B Streptococci, Dwight A. Powell
288. Syphillis, Mary Allen Staat
289. Tetanus, Gary D. Overturf
290. Q Fever, Gordon E. Schutze
291. Tularemia, Jessica Nichols, Stephanie H. Stovall, and Richard F. Jacobs
292. Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections, Tara M. Randis and Adam J. Ratner
293. Yersinia enterocolitica Infections, Basim I. Asmir
294. Rickettsial Infections, Gordon E. Schutze

Part 6: Fungal Infections

295. Aspergillosis, Deborah Lehman
296. Blastomycosis, Dwight A. Powell
297. Candida, Katherine M. Knapp
298. Coccidioidomycosis, Mark R. Schleiss
299. Cryptococcosis, Deborah Lehman
300. Histoplasmosis, Martin B. Kleiman
301. Malassezia furfur, Dwight A. Powell
302. Microsporidiosis, Luis F. Barroso II and Richard L. Guerrant
303. Sporotrichosis, Donna M. Nobile and Martin B. Kleiman
304. Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis), Rebecca C. Brady

Part 7: Viral Infections

305. Arboviruses, Jason Brophy and Elizabeth Lee Ford-Jones
306. Enterovirus Infections, José R. Romero
307. Hemorrhagic Fevers, Eileen C. Farnon, Thomas G. Ksiazek, and Ali S. Khan
308. Viral Hepatitis, Henry Pollack and William Borkowsky
309. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections, David K. Hong and Charles G. Prober
310. Cytomegalovirus, Mark R. Schleiss
311. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Mononucleosis, W. Garrett Hunt and Michael T. Brady
312. Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7, Mark R. Schleiss
313. Human Herpesvirus 8, Mark R. Schleiss
314. Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections, Sophie Hambleton
315. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, Michael T. Brady
316. Measles, William J. Moss and Samuel L. Katz
317. Molluscum Contagiosum, Magdalene A. Dohil and Lawrence F. Eichenfield
318. Mumps, Dennis L. Murray
319. Human Parvovirus, Peggy Sue Weintrub
320. Rubella, Maria Jevitz Patterson
321. Rabies, Peggy Sue Weintrub
322. Smallpox, Anne A. Gershon

Part 8: Parasitic Infections--Nematodes

323. Antiparasitic Therapy, Melissa Hold and Michael Cappello
324. Ascariasis, John S. Schieffelin and Richard A. Oberhelman
325. Baylisascariasis, John S. Schieffelin and Richard A. Oberhelman
326. Dracunculiasis, John S. Schieffelin and Richard A. Oberhelman
327. Enterobiasis (Pinworm), Richard A. Oberhelman
328. Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis, Doran L. Fink and Thomas B. Nutman
329. Hookworm, Melissa Held and Michael Cappello
330. Strongyloidiasis, Richard A. Oberhelman
331. Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans), Richard A. Oberhelman and Peter J. Hotez
332. Trichinosis, Richard A. Oberhelman
333. Trichuriasis, John S. Schieffelin and Richard A. Oberhelman
334. Anasakiasis and Angiostrongyliasis, Richard A. Oberhelman

Part 9: Parasitic Infections--Trematodes

335. Foodborne Trematodiasis and Schistosomiasis, Jennifer Keiser and Jürg Utzinger
336. Diphyllobothriasis, Hector H. Garcia and Robert H. Gillman
337. Dipylidiasis, Hector H. Garcia and Robert H. Gilman
338. Echinococcosis, Hector H. Garcia, Saul Santivanez, and Robert H. Gilman
339. Hymenolepiasis, Hector H. Garcia and Robert H. Gilman
340. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis, Gary D. Overturf

Part 10: Parasitic Infections--Protozoa

341. Amebiasis, Ibne Karim M. Ali and William A. Petri, Jr.
342. Babesiosis, Peter J. Krause
343. Balantidiasis, Eduardo Ortega-Barria and Elidia Dominguez
344. Blastocytis hominis
345. Cryptosporidiosis, Luis F. Barroso, II, and Richard L. Guerrant
346. Cyclosporiasis, Cirle Alcantara Warren and Richard L. Guerrant
347. Dientamoebiasis, Dennis L. Murray
348. Free-Living Amebic Infections, Ibne Karim M. Ali and William A. Petri, Jr.
349. Giardiasis, Richard A. Oberhalman
350. Isosporiasis, Cirle Alcantara Warren
351. Leishmaniasis, Eduardo Ortega-Barria and Luz I. Romero
352. Malaria, Chandy C. John
353. Pneumocystis Pneumonia, Walter T. Hughes
354. Toxoplasmosis, Nicole M. A. Le Saux
355. Trypanosomiases, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
Section Editors: Beth Drolet and Sheila S. Galbraith
356. Functional Overview, Brook E. Tlougan and Amy S. Paller
357. Neonatal Dermatology, Sheila S. Galbraith
358. Disorders of the Epidermis, Kristen E. Holland
359. Disorders of the Dermis and Subcutaneous Tissue, Anita N. Haggstrom
360. Genetics Disorders of the Skin, Brook E. Tlougan and Amy S. Paller
361. Melanocytic Lesions and Disorders of Pigmentation, Julie V. Schaffer and Seth J. Orlov
362. Immunologic Diseases, Julie Prendiville
363. Neoplastic and Proliferative Disorders, Victoria R. Barrio and Lawrence F. Eichenfield
364. Vascular Tumors and Malformations, Ilona J. Frieden and Sheilagh M. Maguiness
365. Acne and Other Disorders of the Pilosebaceous Unit, Sara W. Dill and Bari B. Cunningham
366. Disorders of Nails, Liborka Kos
367. Skin Infections and Exanthems, Jane S. Bellet and Anthony J. Mancini
368. Infestations, Denise W. Metry
Section Editor: Joseph Kerschner
369. The Ear, John H. Greinwald Jr., Margaret A. Kenna, and Blake C. Papsin
370. Nose and Sinus, Ellen S. Deutsch and Cecille G. Sulman
371. The Pharynx and Upper Airway, Marshall E. Smith
372. The Head, Face, and Neck, Craig S. Derkay and Michael J. Cunningham
373. Head and Neck Masses, David E. Tunkel and Jonathan A. Perkins
Section Editors: Howard L. Needleman and Stephen Shusterman
374. Dental Caries, Man Wai Ng and Isabelle I. Chase
375. Dental Emergency Care, Howard L. Needleman and Brian Grove
376. Dental Occlusion and Its Management, Richard Bruun and Sivabalan Vasudavan
377. Periodontal and Gingival Health and Diseases, Nadeem Y. Karimbux and David M. Kim
378. Oral Pathology, Andrew L. Sonis and Brian Grove
379. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders, Bonnie L. Padwa
380. Behavioral Treatment Options in Pediatric Dentistry, Stephen Shusterman and Linda P. Nelson
Section Editor: Colin D. Rudolph
Part 1: Presenting Signs and Symptoms
381. Normal Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Alan N. Mayer
382. Approach to the Child with Acute, Chronic, or Cyclic Vomiting, B.U.K. Li
383. Acute Abdominal Pain, J. Craig Egan, John J. Aiken, and Colin D. Rudolph
384. Chronic Abdominal Pain, Adrian Miranda
385. Diarrhea, Ricardo A. Caicedo and Ivor D. Hill
386. Constipation and Fecal Incontinence, Manu R. Sood
387. Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Richard J. Noel
388. Abdominal Masses, John C. Densmore and Keith T. Oldham
389. Gastrointestinal Obstruction, Pradeep Nazarey and Thomas T. Sato
390. Protein-Losing Enteropathy, Richard J. Noel
391. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Immunodeficiency, Richard J. Noel

Part 2: Esophageal Disorders

392. Anatomic Disorders of the Esophagus, Dave R. Lal
393. Disorders of Esophageal Motility, Neelesh A. Tipnis
394. Gastroesophageal Reflux and Other Causes of Esophageal Inflammation, Colin D. Rudolph
395. Other Esophageal Disorders, Tonya Adamiak and Colin D. Rudolph

Part 3: Congenital and Anatomic Disorders of the Stomach and Intestine

396. Abdominal Wall Defects, Danielle B. Peterson and Marjorie J. Arca
397. Malrotation and Volvulus, John J. Aiken
398. Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis, Rachel Adams Greenup and Casey M. Calkins
399. Congenital Atresias, Stenosis, and Webs, Andrea Winthrop and Jill Whitehouse
400. Microgastria and Gastric Perforation, Andrea Winthrop and Jill Whitehouse
401. Duplications and Cysts, Denise B. Klinkner and David M. Gourlay
402. Omphalo-Mesenteric Duct Remnants, Denise B. Klinkner and David M. Gourlay
403. Meconium Diseases of Infancy and Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome, Pradeep Nazarey and Thomas T. Sato
404. Intussusception, John C. Densmore and Dave R. Lal
405. Inguinal and Other Hernias, John J. Aiken
406. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome, Vincent F. Biank
407. Motor Disorders of the Stomach, Small Bowel, and Colon, Manu R. Sood and Casey M. Calkins

Part 4: Disorders of Digestion and Absorption

408. Disorders of Digestion and Absorption, Ivor D. Hill and Ricardo A. Caicedo

Part 5: Disorders of the Stomach and Intestine

409. Inflammatory Disorders of the Stomach, Ranjan Dohil and Eric Hassall
410. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Michael C. Stephens, Subra Kugathasan, and Thomas T. Sato
411. Allergic and Eosinophilic Gastroenteropathies, B.U.K. Li
412. Vascular, Systemic, and Other Disorders Affecting the Gastrointestinal TractGrzegorz Telega, Vince F. Biank, and B.U.K. Li
413. Acute Appendicitis, Typhlitis, and Chronic Appendicitis, J. Craig Egan and John J. Aiken
414. Polyps and Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Steve H. Erdman and Edward J. Hoffenberg
415. Congenital Anomalies of the Anorectum, Casey M. Calkins and Manu R. Sood
416. Other Anorectal Disorders, Judith M. Sondheimer

Part 6: The Exocrine Pancreas

417. Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas, Steven L. Werlin
Section Editor: Saul Karpen
418. Structure and Function of the Liver, Jonathan E. Teitelbaum
419. Evaluation of the Infant and Child with Liver Disease, Robert H. Squires, Jr.
420. Autoimmune Disorders of the Liver, Nada Yazigi
421.Metabolic and Genetic Disorders of the Liver, Frederick J. Suchy
422. Drug, Toxin, and TPN Liver Disease, Christopher D. Jolley, Regino P. González-Peralta, and Beth A. Carter
423. The Liver in Systemic Disease, Maureen M. Jonas
424. Acute Liver Failure, Vicky Lee Ng
425. End-Stage Liver Disease, Vicky Lee Ng
426. Other Disorders of the Liver, Stephanie Abrams
427. The Biliary Tract, Colin D. Rudolph, Gregorz Telega, Vincent Biank, and Douglas S. Fishman
Section Editor: George R. Buchanan
Part 1: Principles of Blood Disorders
428. Approach to Suspected Hematologic Disorders, George R. Buchanan
429. Hematopoeisis, Charles T. Quinn

Part 2: Disorders of Red Blood Cells and Anemia

430. Anemia, Matthew M. Heeney
431. Iron Deficiency, Matthew M. Heeney
432. Anemia Due to Diminished Red Blood Cell Production, Zora R. Rogers
433. Hemolytic Anemia, Amber Mayfield Yates and Russell E. Ware
434. Hemoglobinopathies, Charles T. Quinn

Part 3: Disorders of Coagulation and Platelets

435. Normal and Abnormal Coagulation, Janna M. Journeycake, Anthony K. C. Chan, and Janet Yang
436. Inherited Bleeding Disorders, Amy L. Dunn, Shannon L. Meeks, and Thomas C. Abshire
437. Acquired Coagulation Disorders, Guy Young
438. Diagnosis and Management of Thrombosis, Janna M. Journeycake and Anthony K. C. Chan
439. Disorders of Platelets, Cindy E. Neunert and Donald L. Yee

Part 4: Disorders of the Spleen and Lymph Nodes

440. The Spleen and Lymph Nodes, Shelley E. Crary

Part 5: Disorders of White Blood Cells,

441. Disorders of Granulocytes, R. Alexander Blackwood and Lawrence A. Boxer

Part 6: Principles of Transfusion

442. Transfusion Medicine, Cassandra D. Josephson
Section Editor: Robert J. Arceci

Part 1: Principles of Oncology

443. Cancer Genetics and Biology, David Malkin
444. Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer, Louise Parker
445. Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy, Peter C. Adamson and Larry E. Kun
446. Clinical Trials in Pediatric Oncology, Malcolm A. Smith and Gregory H. Reaman
447. Neonatal Oncology, Sheila Weitzman, Yaron Finkelstein, and Robert J. Arceci
448. Cancer Survivorship and Recommendations for Follow-Up, Smita Bhatia and Anna Meadows

Part 2: Hematologic Malignancies

449. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, James B. Nachman
450. Myeloid Malignancies, Soheil Meshinchi, Robert J. Arceci, and Howard J. Weinstein
451. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Mitchell S. Cairo and Thomas G. Gross
452. Hodgkin Lymphoma, Melissa M. Hudson and Tanya M. Trippett

Part 3: Solid Tumors

453. Osteosarcoma, Richard Gorlick and Paul A. Meyers
454. Ewing Sarcoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, Crystal L. Mackall and Jeffrey A. Toretsky
455. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Douglas S. Hawkins and Frederic G. Barr
456. Renal Tumors, Elizabeth Mullen
457. Neuroblastoma, Michael D. Hogarty and Garrett M. Brodeur
458. Malignant Liver Tumors, Gail E. Tomlinson and Howard M. Katzenstein
459. Germ Cell Tumors, Thomas A. Olson
460. Brain Tumors and Spinal Tumors, Kenneth J. Cohen and Ian F. Pollack
461. Retinoblastoma, Rima F. Jubran and Anna T. Meadows
462. Vascular Neoplasms, Denise M. Adams and Michael E. Kelly

Part 4: Mononuclear Phagocytic System Disorders

463. Histiocytic Disorders, R. Maarten Egeler, Robert J. Arceci, and Jan-Inge Henter
Section Editor: Norman D. Rosenblum

Part 1: Principles of Nephrology

464. Renal Morphogenesis, Sunder Sims-Lucas and Carlton M. Bates
465. Development of Renal Function, Tino D. Piscione
466. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders, Manjula Gowrishankar
467. Diagnostic Approach to Renal Disease, John W. Foreman

Part 2: Abnormalities of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

468. Kidney or Urinary Tract Disorders, John W. Foreman
469. Renal Malformations, Norman D. Rosenblum
470. Cystic Diseases of the Kidney, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
471. Acute Renal Failure, Prasad Devarajan
472. Glomerular Diseases, Allison A. Eddy
473. Hereditary Glomerulopathies, Clifford E. Kashtan
474. Renal Tubular Disorders, Michel Baum
475. Urinary Tract Stone Diseases, Valerie Langlois
476. Urologic Abnormalities of the Genitourinary Tract, Luis H.P. Braga and Darius J. Bägli

Part 3: Chronic Kidney Disease

477. Chronic Kidney Disease, Denis F. Geary
478. Chronic Dialysis, Stuart L. Goldstein
479. Systemic Hypertension, Craig W. Belsha and Joseph T. Flynn
Section Editors: Julien I. E. Hoffman and David Teitel

Part 1: Principles of Cardiology

480. Development of the Cardiovascular System, Deepak Srivastava
481. Genetics of Heart Disease, Kathleen M. Ruppel

Part 2: Approach to the Patient with Cardiovascular Disease

482. Fetal Cardiology, Lisa K. Hornberger and Jean Trines
483. Neonate and Infant with Cardiovascular Disease, David Teitel
484. Congenital Heart Disease, Julien I.E. Hoffman
485. Arrhythmias, George F. Van Hare and Louis Larrick
486. Child and Adolescent with Cardiovascular Disease, Howard P. Gutgesell and George M. McDaniel

Part 3: Acquired Cardiovascular Disease

487. Cardiac Tumors, Julien I.E. Hoffman
488. Kawasaki Disease, Mary Beth Son and Jane W. Newburger
489. Diseases of Myocardium, Jeffrey A. Towbin
490. Infective Endocarditis, Jane W. Newberger
491. Pericardial Diseases, Julien I.E. Hoffman
492. Pulmonary Hypertension, Julien I.E. Hoffman

Part 4: Diagnostic Tools in Heart Disease

493. Electrocardiography, George F. Van Hare
494. Radiologic Imaging, Alison Knauth Meadows and Michael W. Dae
495. Echocardiography, Therasa A. Tacy
496. Cardiac Catherization, Phillip Moore

Part 5: Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

497. Heart Failure, Robert E. Shaddy and Chitra Ravishankar
498. The Patient with Single Ventricle, Jacqueline Kreutzer
499. Interventional Cardiology, Phillip Moore
500. Health Care Management, Mark Cocalis
501. Sudden Death, Julien I.E. Hoffman
Section Editor: Jay K. Kolls

Part 1: Principles of Pulmonology

502. Lung Growth in Infacy and Childhood, Richard L. Auten
503. Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function, Daniel J. Weiner
504. Global Burden of Respiratory Infections and Mucosal Immunology of the Respiratory Tract, Jay K. Kolls and Joseph P. Mizgerd
505. Clinical Presentation of Respiratory Illness, Hans Pasterkamp
506. Tools for Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Disease, Beverly Newman and Geoffrey Kurland

Part 2: Disorders of the Respiratory System

507. Congenital Disorders of the Lower Airways and Mediastinum, Andrew Bush
508. Disorders of Respiratory Control and Sleep-Disordered Breathing, David Gozal and Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
509. Sleep Disorders, Hemant Sawnani and Narong Simakajornboon
510. Disorders Causing Airway Obstruction, Shean J. Aujla and Jonathan E. Spahr
511. Aspiration Syndromes, Cori L. Daines
512. Asthma, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey
513. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Timothy D. Murphy
514. Cystic Fibrosis, David M. Orenstein
515. Interstitial Lung Disease, Jennifer A. Rama and Leland L. Fan
516. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease, Terence R. Flotte and Christian Mueller
517. Pulmonary Vasculitis Syndromes, Paul Rosen
518. Pulmonary Alviolar Proteinosis, Bruce C. Trapnell and Lisa R. Young
519. Chest Wall and Respiratory Muscle Disorders, Jonathan D. Finder
Section Editors: Allen W. Root
520. Mechanisms of Hormone Action, Adda Grimberg and Linda A. DeMeglio
521. Disorders of the Anterior Pituitary Gland, Edward O. Reiter
522. Growth and Growth Impairment, Edward O. Reiter
523. Endocrine Abnormalities Causing Growth Impairment, Edward O. Reiter
524. Tall Stature, Edward O. Reiter
525. Primary Disturbances in Water Hemeostasis, Abhinash Srivatsa and Joseph A. Majzoub
526. The Thyroid, Delbert A. Fisher
527. Hypothyroidism in the Infact, Delbert A. Fisher
528. Acquired Hypothyroidism in the Infant, Delbert A. Fisher
529. Hyperthyroidism, Delbert A. Fisher
530. Other Disorders of the Thyroid, Delbert A. Fisher
531. The Adrenal Cortex, Walter L. Miller
532. Evaluation of the Adrenal Function, Walter L. Miller
533. Genetic Lesions in Steroidogenesis, Walter L. Miller
534. Adrenal Insufficiency, Walter L. Miller
535. Adrenal Excess, Walter L. Miller
536. Glucocorticoid Therapy and Withdrawal, Walter L. Miller
537. Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes, Steven D. Chernausek and Constantine A. Stratakis
538. Normal Human Sex Differentiation, Melvin M. Grumbach
539. Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD), Melvin M. Grumbach
540. Normal Pubertal Development, Dennis M. Styne and Leonna Cuttler
541. Abnormal Pubertal Development, Dennis M. Styne and Leonna Cuttler
542. Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Metabolism, Allen W. Root
543. Disorders of Bone Formation, Allen W. Root
544. Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents, Arlan L. Rosenbloom
545. Endocrine Causes of Hypoglocemia, Andrea Kelly and Charles A. Stanley
Section Editors: Scott L. Pomeroy, Blaise F. D. Bourgeois, Basil T. Darras, Edward M. Kaye

Part 1: Principles of Neurology

546. Introduction to Neurology, Mustafa Sahin
547. Clinical Approach to Neurologic Disease, Maitreyi Mazumbar

Part 2: Abnormal Development of the Nervous System

548. Cranial Development Abnormalities, Omar Khwaja
549. Disturbances of the Neural Tube and Spine Closure, Omar Khwaja
550. Macrocephaly and Microcephaly: Approach and Differential Diagnosis, Nicole Ullrich

Part 3: Acute Deterioration of Neurologic Function

551. Trauma to the Nervous System, Magdi M. Sobeih
552. Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, Michael J. Ravkin
553. Hydrocephalus and Pseudotumor Cerebri, Nicole Ullrich
554. Cerebral Palsy and Static Encephalopathies, Robert S. Rust and David K. Urion
555. Infections of the Central Nervous System, Kiran P. Maski and Nicole Ullrich
556. Immune- and Inflammatory-Mediated Central Nervous System Syndromes, Mark P. Gorman

Part 4: Epilepsy

557. Epidemiology of Epilepsy, Seizure Classification, Epilepsy Syndromes, Mark H. Libenson and Ann M. Bergin
558. Etiologies of Epilepsies, Annapurna Poduri
559. Febrile Seizures, Masanori Takeoka
560. Evaluation of New Onset Seizures, Alexander Rotenberg
561. Status Epilepticus, Alexander Rotenberg
562. Antiepileptic Drug Therapy, Blaise F. D. Bougeois
563. Ketogenic Diet and Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy, Ann M. Bergin
564. Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery, Dean P. Sarco

Part 5: Paroxysmal Disorders

565. Migraine and Headache Disorders, Alyssa Ann LeBel and Ann Minster
566. Movement Disorders, Tics, and Tourette Syndrome, Diana Apetauerova
567. Other Paroxysmal Disorders, Sanjeev V. Kothare

Part 6: Disorders of Strength, Tone, and Sensation

568. General Evaluation of Strength, Tone, and Sensation, Peter B. Kang and Basil T. Darras
569. The Hypotonic Infant, Basil T. Darras
570. Peripheral Nerve Disorders and Anterior Horn Cell Diseases, Peter B. KangH. Royden Jones
572. Myopathies, Basil T. Darras

Part 7: Developmental Delay and Regression

573. Neurologic Aspects of Disorders of Metal Metabolism, Cecilia Mellado and Mustafa Sahin
574. Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Irina A. Anselm
575. Rett Syndrome (MECP2-related disorders), Cecilia Mellado and Mustafa Sahin
576. Leukoencephalopathies, Mark P. Gorman
577. Neurotransmitter Disorders, Erika F. Augustine and Annapurna Poduri
578. Phakomatoses, Mustafa Sahin
Section Editor: Alex V. Levin

Part 1: General Principles

579. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye and Ocular System, Monte A. Del Monte
580. Office Evaluation of the Eyes, Gregg T. Lueder
581. Special Tests of the Eyes, Daniel J. Karr and Alex V. Levin
582. International Pediatric Ophthalmology, Sherwin J. Isenberg and Leonard Apt

Part 2: Disorders of the Eye

583. Eye Emergencies and Trauma, Daniel J. Karr and Alex V. Levin
584. Visual Impairment in Childhood, David S. Walton
585. Amblyopia, Anthony G. Quinn and Alex V. Levin
586. Strabismus, Robert W. Enzenauer, Mary Ellen Hoehn, and Monte A. Del Monte
587. The Eye in Child Abuse, Alex V. Levin
588. Red Eye, Anthony G. Quinn
589. Lid and Lacrimal System Disorders, Gregg T. Lueder
590. Anterior Segment Disorders, David S. Walton
591. Retinopathy of Prematurity, Earl A. Palmer and Irene Hsu-Dresden
592. Genetic Eye Diseases, J. Bronwyn Bateman, John Roarty, Christina L. Butera, and Alex V. Levin
593. Optic Nerve Disorders, John Roarty